To do this
Press this
Display Help
Toggle between full-screen and regular views of the browser window
Move forward through the items on a webpage, the Address bar, or the Favorites bar
Move back through the items on a webpage, the Address bar, or the Favorites bar
Start Caret Browsing
Go to your home page
Go to the next page
Go to the previous page
Display a shortcut menu for a link
Move forward through frames and browser elements
Scroll toward the beginning of a document
Scroll toward the end of a document
Scroll toward the beginning of a document in larger increments
Scroll toward the end of a document in larger increments
Move to the beginning of a document
Move to the end of a document
Find on this page
Refresh the current webpage
Refresh the current webpage, even if the time stamp for the web version and your locally stored version are the same
Stop downloading a page
Open a new website or page
Open a new window
Open a new InPrivate Browsing window
Duplicate tab (open current tab in a new tab)
Reopen the last tab you closed
Close the current window (if you only have one tab open)
Save the current page
Print the current page or active frame
Activate a selected link
Open Favorites
Open History
Open Feeds
Open the Page menu
Open the Tools menu
Open the Help menu
The following table describes shortcuts used when working with tabs.
To do this
Press this
Open links in a new tab in the background
Open links in a new tab in the foreground
Open a new tab in the foreground
Switch between tabs
Close current tab (or the current window if tabbed browsing is disabled)
Open a new tab in the foreground from the Address bar
Switch to a specific tab number
CTRL+n (where n is a number between 1 and 8)
Switch to the last tab
Close other tabs
Toggle Quick Tabs (thumbnail view) on or off
To do this
Press this
Increase zoom (+ 10%)
Decrease zoom (- 10%)
Zoom to 100%
To do this
Press this
Go to the search box
Open your search query in a new tab
Open the search provider menu
To do this
Press this
Set printing options and print the page
Change paper, headers and footers, orientation, and margins for this page
Display the first page to be printed
Display the previous page to be printed
Type the number of the page you want displayed
Display the next page to be printed
Display the last page to be printed
Specify how you want frames to print (this option is available only if you are printing a webpage that uses frames)
Close Print Preview
To do this
Press this
Select the text in the Address bar
Display a list of addresses you’ve typed
When in the Address bar, move the cursor left to the next logical break in the address (period or slash)
When in the Address bar, move the cursor right to the next logical break in the address (period or slash)
Add “www.” to the beginning and “.com” to the end of the text typed in the Address bar
Move forward through the list of AutoComplete matches
Move back through the list of AutoComplete matches
To do this
Press this
Open the Home menu
Open the Print menu
Open the RSS menu
Open the Tools menu
Open the Safety menu
Open the Help menu
To do this
Press this
Add the current page to your favorites (or subscribe to the feed when in feed preview)
Delete browsing history
Open an InPrivate Browsing window
Open the Organize Favorites dialog box
Move selected item up in the Favorites list in the Organize Favorites dialog box
Move selected item down in the Favorites list in the Organize Favorites dialog box
Open Favorites Center and display your favorites
Open Favorites Center and display your history
Open Favorites Center and display your feeds
Open and dock the Favorites Center and display your feeds
Open the Add to Favorites menu (or open Subscribe to feed when in feed preview)
Open the Favorites menu from the menu bar
Display all feeds (when in feed view)
Mark a feed as read (when in feed view)
Put cursor in Search box in feed view
To do this
Press this
Remove the selected items and copy them to the Clipboard
Copy the selected items to the Clipboard
Insert the contents of the Clipboard at the selected location
Select all items on the current webpage
Open Internet Explorer Developer Tools
To do this
Press this
Move focus to the Information bar
Click the Information bar

Five Tips For Removing Viruses & Spyware

It’s inevitable that clients will infect workstations, PCs, and laptops with spyware and viruses. Regardless of preventive steps, from gateway protection to automated scans to written Internet use policies, malware threats sneak through even layered defenses. What makes the situation worse is that many clients aren’t willing to invest in standalone anti-spyware software, even though they understand the need for minimal antivirus protection.

Some IT professionals advocate simply wiping systems and reinstalling Windows, while others suggest that’s akin to giving up and letting the bad guys win. The truth lies somewhere in between. After making an image copy of the drive (it’s always best to have a fallback option when battling malicious infections), here are the measures I find most effective.

1: Isolate the drive

Many rootkit and Trojan threats are masters of disguise that hide from the operating system as soon as or before Windows starts. I find that even the best antivirus and antispyware tools — including AVG Anti-Virus Professional, Malwarebytes Anti-Malware, and SuperAntiSpyware — sometimes struggle to remove such entrenched infections.

You need systems dedicated to removal. Pull the hard disk from the offending system, slave it to the dedicated test machine, and run multiple virus and spyware scans against the entire slaved drive.

2: Remove temporary files

While the drive is still slaved, browse to all users’ temporary files. These are typically found within the C:\Documents and Settings\Username\Local Settings\Temp directory within Windows XP or the C:\Users\Username\App Data\Local\Temp folder within Windows Vista.

Delete everything within the temporary folders. Many threats hide there seeking to regenerate upon system startup. With the drive still slaved, it’s much easier to eliminate these offending files.

3: Return the drive and repeat those scans

Once you run a complete antivirus scan and execute two full antispyware scans using two current, recently updated and different anti-spyware applications (removing all found infections), return the hard disk to the system. Then, run the same scans again.

Despite the scans and previous sanitization, you may be surprised at the number of remaining active infections the anti-malware applications subsequently find and remove. Only by performing these additional native scans can you be sure you’ve done what you can to locate and remove known threats.

4: Test the system

When you finish the previous three steps, it’s tempting to think a system is good to go. Don’t make that mistake. Boot it up, open the Web browser, and immediately delete all offline files and cookies. Next, go to the Internet Explorer Connection settings (Tools | Internet Options and select the Connections tab within Internet Explorer) to confirm that a malicious program didn’t change a system’s default proxy or LAN connection settings. Correct any issues you find and ensure settings match those required on your network or the client’s network.

Then, visit 12 to 15 random sites. Look for any anomalies, including the obvious popup windows, redirected Web searches, hijacked home pages, and similar frustrations. Don’t consider the machine cleaned until you can open Google, Yahoo, and other search engines and complete searches on a string of a half-dozen terms. Be sure to test the system’s ability to reach popular anti-malware Web sites, such as AVG, Symantec, and Malwarebytes.

5: Dig deeper on remaining infections

If any infection remnants persist, such as redirected searches or blocked access to specific Web sites, try determining the filename for the active process causing the trouble. Trend Micro’s HijackThis, Microsoft’s Process Explorer, and Windows’ native Microsoft System Configuration Utility (Start | Run and type msconfig) are excellent utilities for helping locate offending processes. If necessary, search the registry for an offending executable and remove all incidents. Then, reboot the system and try again.

If a system still proves corrupt or unusable, it’s time to begin thinking about a reinstall. If an infection persists after all these steps, you’re likely in a losing battle.

Other strategies

Some IT consultants swear by fancier tricks than what I’ve outlined above. I’ve investigated KNOPPIX as one alternative. And I’ve had a few occasions in the field where I’ve slaved infected Windows drives to my Macintosh laptop to delete particularly obstinate files in the absence of a boot disk. Other technicians recommend leveraging such tools as Reimage, although I’ve experienced difficulty getting the utility to even recognize common NICs, without which the automated repair tool can’t work.

Increase Performance In Windows Vista

Windows Vista has some great new security and functionality features, as well as cool eye candy, such as Aero transparency, Flip 3D, and other graphical tricks. But all this comes with overhead that may lead to a performance hit on anything less than a top-of-the-line supercomputer.

If you find Vista’s performance lagging, the good news is that you can make it run faster. Here are some of the steps you can take.

#1: Add more RAM

There’s no denying it: Vista is a RAM-hungry operating system. Whereas XP usually runs great on 512MB, you really need a minimum of a gigabyte to run Vista acceptably. Two gigs is even better, and if you turn on all the graphical features and keep a lot of programs open, especially those that use a lot of memory, four gigs isn’t overkill.

Luckily, RAM is still relatively inexpensive — but it’s rumored to be on the rise, so get as much of it as you can, while you can. You won’t regret it.

#2: Use ReadyBoost

Can’t add physical RAM? Maybe you have a laptop that already has the maximum amount of memory installed. In that case, Vista provides you with a way to fool your computer into thinking it has more RAM than it does. You can use a flash memory card or USB key to boost the system memory; Vista can access the flash memory more quickly than data stored on the hard disk.

It’s best to use a high-performance flash card or USB drive for ReadyBoost. When you insert it, Windows will ask if you want to use it to speed up system performance, and then you can allocate how much of the card’s/drive’s memory you want to use for that purpose. The rest can be used for storing data. For more info about ReadyBoost, see this Microsoft feature description.

#3: Get a good video card

If you have enough RAM, the most likely hardware culprit on a slow-moving Vista machine is the video card. You need a fairly high-end card to run Aero at all, but some computer vendors are selling computers with graphics cards that run it badly. You can find out whether your video card is the bottleneck by checking your Windows Experience Index (WEI) score from the Performance Information and Tools applet in Control Panel.

The onboard video adapters in most systems aren’t powerful enough to run Vista properly. If you want to run Aero and be happy doing it, get a card that’s Vista Premium Certified. As with system RAM, the more video RAM the better, and if you want to play Vista games, be sure your card supports Direct X 10.

#4: Eliminate extra startup programs

You may find that you have a lot of programs loading automatically when you boot Windows, especially if you bought your Vista system from a hardware vendor who added lots of software. Some of these you may want, such as antivirus or anti-spyware programs, but many of them you probably don’t even use or use only occasionally and don’t want to run all the time. Yet they’re all loading into memory and consuming your system resources — and thus slowing down your computer as they run in the background.

Some programs can be prevented from starting automatically by removing them from the Startup folder. Others are configured in the registry to run at startup. Many can be managed through the Windows Defender Software Explorer, which you can access from the Manage Startup Programs link in the left pane of the Performance Information and Tools applet.

#5: Turn off visual enhancements

There are a lot of visual enhancements that make Vista look like Vista, such as the animations when minimizing and maximizing windows, fading or sliding menus, shadows under the menus and mouse pointer, and thumbnails of graphics files instead of dull icons. However, all this bling uses resources, and if performance is your priority, the operating system will run faster without them.

The Performance Options dialog box can be accessed through the Adjust Visual Effects link in the left pane of the Performance Information and Tools applet. On the Visual Effects tab, you can customize these settings individually, turning off the ones you don’t want, to help speed performance. Or you can disable all of the visual effects by clicking the Adjust for Best Performance option.

#6: Adjust indexing options

Vista has a much-improved search function, but it’s dependent on indexing the files and programs on your hard disk so they can be found quickly. When the indexing process is running, however, it can slightly slow down other programs you’re trying to run at the same time.

You can select the locations you want to index; fewer locations will result in less indexing and thus better overall performance. On the other hand, you’ll get better search performance by indexing all locations. You can’t turn the indexing feature off completely, but you can adjust locations indexed by selecting Adjust Indexing Options in the left pane of the Performance Information and Tools applet.

#7: Clean up and defrag the disk

Fragmented files or a lot of unneeded extra files on the disk can slow down performance. Vista provides a disk cleanup tool, which you can access from Start | All Programs | Accessories | System Tools. Specify a drive you want to clean up, and the tool will estimate the amount of space you can recover by running the cleanup process.

Defragmenting the disk rearranges data on it so that all the parts of a file are together; this allows Vista to access those files more quickly. The built-in disk defragmenter is also accessed from the System Tools menu. The defragmentation process itself can slow down your computer, so you may want to schedule it to run at a time when you aren’t using the computer. Third-party defrag utilities are also available.

#8: Adjust your power settings

If you don’t mind using more power, you can boost performance by setting your power settings to the High Performance option. Click the Power Options applet in Control Panel and select that choice. By default, this configuration is set to Balanced, which limits the CPU to 50% power during normal operation.

#9: Turn off the sidebar

The sidebar is a cool feature of Vista, but if you don’t use its applets, you can save some resources by disabling it. First, right-click it and select Properties. Next, deselect the check box to start the sidebar when Windows starts. Then, close the sidebar by right-clicking it and selecting Close.

#10: If all else fails, turn off Aero

This is a last-resort option for most Vista users; after all, Aero is what makes Vista look like Vista. But if you don’t care for all the eye candy and/or have a low-powered machine and you still want the functionality advantages of the new OS (search, security, Explorer enhancements, etc.), you can definitely speed things up by going back to the nontransparent look.

To do so, right-click the desktop and select Personalize, then click Windows Color and Appearance. Now, click Open Classic Appearance Properties for More Color Options. From the drop-down list box on the Appearance tab, select any theme except Aero (Windows Vista Basic, Windows Standard, or Windows Classic).


RAM Defragmenter Alternative

Hi friends,
As you all know, how costly the original RAM defragmenting softwares are. So, I’ve come up with a short and simple tweak tip to free up your RAM memory. All you have to do is follow some simple steps and succeed in freeing up your RAM memory.
1. Open a new notepad file.
2.Type FreeMem=Space(64000000)
3. Save this file with some name like RAM.vbs all you have to take care is to keep the extension as “.vbs”

4. Close this file and then run it by double clicking on it.

Use Your Computer Hard Disc As RAM

Everybody knows how costly is to buy a new RAM. SO, in order to get almost equal performance, we can also use some memory from our Hard Disc as virtual memory, which acts as a substitute to RAM. Follow the simple steps stated below to do so….
1. Right Click on My Computer & go to Properties
2. Click on Advanced Tab & go to Settings in the Performance Section.
3. Select the next “Advanced” Tab on the “Performance Options” window. On the advanced tab, click the “Change” button in the “Virtual memory” section.
4. Comprehend the implications of the virtual memory settings. On the “Virtual Memory” window, the “initial size” is the minimum amount of hard drive space Windows will allocate to virtual memory. The “maximum size” is the largest size to which Windows will allow your virtual memory to grow. If you set this setting too low and Windows requires more virtual memory than the maximum, Windows will likely crash or freeze and you will need to reboot. Thus, you should select (or keep the selection as) “System managed size.” By allowing Windows to manage the virtual memory, Windows will increase and decrease the size of the virtual memory as-needed. It is not recommended under any circumstances to select “No paging file” because this can cause system instability.
5. Choose your virtual memory settings. On the “Virtual Memory” screen, you may modify your virtual memory settings in accordance with Step 4. Once you have made your settings, click the “Set” button. Windows will ask you to reboot. Once you do, your virtual memory settings will be changed.

General Keyboard Shortcuts For Windows


CTRL+X (Cut)

CTRL+Z (Undo)

DELETE (Delete)

SHIFT+DELETE (Delete the selected item permanently without placing the item in the Recycle Bin)

CTRL while dragging an item (Copy the selected item)

CTRL+SHIFT while dragging an item (Create a shortcut to the selected item)

F2 key (Rename the selected item)

CTRL+RIGHT ARROW (Move the insertion point to the beginning of the next word)

CTRL+LEFT ARROW (Move the insertion point to the beginning of the previous word)

CTRL+DOWN ARROW (Move the insertion point to the beginning of the next paragraph)

CTRL+SHIFT with any of the arrow keys (Highlight a block of text)

CTRL+UP ARROW (Move the insertion point to the beginning of the previous paragraph)

SHIFT with any of the arrow keys (Select more than one item in a window or on the desktop, or select text in a document)

CTRL+A (Select all)

F3 key (Search for a file or a folder)

ALT+ENTER (View the properties for the selected item)

ALT+F4 (Close the active item, or quit the active program)

ALT+ENTER (Display the properties of the selected object)

ALT+SPACEBAR (Open the shortcut menu for the active window)

CTRL+F4 (Close the active document in programs that enable you to have multiple documents open simultaneously)

ALT+TAB (Switch between the open items)

ALT+ESC (Cycle through items in the order that they had been opened)

F6 key (Cycle through the screen elements in a window or on the desktop)

F4 key (Display the Address bar list in My Computer or Windows Explorer)

SHIFT+F10 (Display the shortcut menu for the selected item)

ALT+SPACEBAR (Display the System menu for the active window)

CTRL+ESC (Display the Start menu)

ALT+Underlined letter in a menu name (Display the corresponding menu)

Underlined letter in a command name on an open menu (Perform the corresponding command)

F10 key (Activate the menu bar in the active program)

RIGHT ARROW (Open the next menu to the right, or open a submenu)

LEFT ARROW (Open the next menu to the left, or close a submenu)

F5 key (Update the active window)

BACKSPACE (View the folder one level up in My Computer or Windows Explorer)

ESC (Cancel the current task)

SHIFT when you insert a CD-ROM into the CD-ROM drive (Prevent the CD-ROM from automatically playing)

CTRL+SHIFT+ESC (Open Task Manager) Dialog box keyboard shortcuts

If you press SHIFT+F8 in extended selection list boxes, you enable extended selection mode. In this mode, you can use an arrow key to move a cursor without changing the selection. You can press CTRL+SPACEBAR or SHIFT+SPACEBAR to adjust the selection. To cancel extended selection mode, press SHIFT+F8 again. Extended selection mode cancels itself when you move the focus to another control.

CTRL+TAB (Move forward through the tabs)

CTRL+SHIFT+TAB (Move backward through the tabs)

TAB (Move forward through the options)

SHIFT+TAB (Move backward through the options)

ALT+Underlined letter (Perform the corresponding command or select the corresponding option)

ENTER (Perform the command for the active option or button)

SPACEBAR (Select or clear the check box if the active option is a check box)

Arrow keys (Select a button if the active option is a group of option buttons)

F1 key (Display Help)

F4 key (Display the items in the active list)

BACKSPACE (Open a folder one level up if a folder is selected in the Save As or Open dialog box)

Shortcuts Commands In Run

Calc – Calculator

Cfgwiz32 – ISDN Configuration Wizard

Charmap – Character Map

Chkdisk – Repair damaged files

Cleanmgr – Cleans up hard drives

Clipbrd – Windows Clipboard viewer

Cmd – Opens a new Command Window (cmd.exe)

Control – Displays Control Panel

Dcomcnfg – DCOM user security

Debug – Assembly language programming tool

Defrag – Defragmentation tool

Drwatson – Records programs crash & snapshots

Dxdiag – DirectX Diagnostic Utility

Explorer – Windows Explorer

Fontview – Graphical font viewer

Ftp – ftp.exe program

Hostname – Returns Computer’s name

Ipconfig – Displays IP configuration for all network adapters

Jview – Microsoft Command-line Loader for Java classes

MMC – Microsoft Management Console

Msconfig – Configuration to edit startup files

Msinfo32 – Microsoft System Information Utility

Nbtstat – Displays stats and current connections using NetBios over TCP/IP

Netstat – Displays all active network connections

Nslookup- Returns your local DNS server

Ping – Sends data to a specified host/IP

Regedit – registry Editor

Regsvr32 – register/de-register DLL/OCX/ActiveX

Regwiz – Reistration wizard

Sfc /scannow – Sytem File Checker

Sndrec32 – Sound Recorder

Sndvol32 – Volume control for soundcard

Sysedit – Edit system startup files (config.sys, autoexec.bat, win.ini, etc.)

Systeminfo – display various system information in text console

Taskmgr – Task manager

Telnet – Telnet program

Taskkill – kill processes using command line interface

Tskill – reduced version of Taskkill from Windows XP Home

Tracert – Traces and displays all paths required to reach an internet host

Winchat – simple chat program for Windows networks

Winipcfg – Displays IP configuration