INTERNET EXPLORER 9 KEYBOARD SHORTCUTS

VIEWING AND EXPLORING WEB PAGES
To do this
Press this
Display Help
F1
Toggle between full-screen and regular views of the browser window
F11
Move forward through the items on a webpage, the Address bar, or the Favorites bar
TAB
Move back through the items on a webpage, the Address bar, or the Favorites bar
SHIFT+TAB
Start Caret Browsing
F7
Go to your home page
ALT+HOME
Go to the next page
ALT+RIGHT ARROW
Go to the previous page
ALT+LEFT ARROW or BACKSPACE
Display a shortcut menu for a link
SHIFT+F10
Move forward through frames and browser elements
CTRL+TAB or F6
Scroll toward the beginning of a document
UP ARROW
Scroll toward the end of a document
DOWN ARROW
Scroll toward the beginning of a document in larger increments
PAGE UP
Scroll toward the end of a document in larger increments
PAGE DOWN
Move to the beginning of a document
HOME
Move to the end of a document
END
Find on this page
CTRL+F
Refresh the current webpage
F5
Refresh the current webpage, even if the time stamp for the web version and your locally stored version are the same
CTRL+F5
Stop downloading a page
ESC
Open a new website or page
CTRL+O
Open a new window
CTRL+N
Open a new InPrivate Browsing window
CTRL+SHIFT+P
Duplicate tab (open current tab in a new tab)
CTRL+K
Reopen the last tab you closed
CTRL+SHIFT+T
Close the current window (if you only have one tab open)
CTRL+W
Save the current page
CTRL+S
Print the current page or active frame
CTRL+P
Activate a selected link
ENTER
Open Favorites
CTRL+I
Open History
CTRL+H
Open Feeds
CTRL+J
Open the Page menu
ALT+P
Open the Tools menu
ALT+T
Open the Help menu
ALT+H
WORKING WITH TABS
The following table describes shortcuts used when working with tabs.
To do this
Press this
Open links in a new tab in the background
CTRL+click
Open links in a new tab in the foreground
CTRL+SHIFT+click
Open a new tab in the foreground
CTRL+T
Switch between tabs
CTRL+TAB or CTRL+SHIFT+TAB
Close current tab (or the current window if tabbed browsing is disabled)
CTRL+W
Open a new tab in the foreground from the Address bar
ALT+ENTER
Switch to a specific tab number
CTRL+n (where n is a number between 1 and 8)
Switch to the last tab
CTRL+9
Close other tabs
CTRL+ALT+F4
Toggle Quick Tabs (thumbnail view) on or off
CTRL+Q
USING ZOOM:
To do this
Press this
Increase zoom (+ 10%)
CTRL+PLUS SIGN
Decrease zoom (- 10%)
CTRL+MINUS SIGN
Zoom to 100%
CTRL+0
USING SEARCH:
To do this
Press this
Go to the search box
CTRL+E
Open your search query in a new tab
ALT+ENTER
Open the search provider menu
CTRL+DOWN ARROW
USING PRINT PREVIEW:
To do this
Press this
Set printing options and print the page
ALT+P
Change paper, headers and footers, orientation, and margins for this page
ALT+U
Display the first page to be printed
ALT+HOME
Display the previous page to be printed
ALT+LEFT ARROW
Type the number of the page you want displayed
ALT+A
Display the next page to be printed
ALT+RIGHT ARROW
Display the last page to be printed
ALT+END
Specify how you want frames to print (this option is available only if you are printing a webpage that uses frames)
ALT+F
Close Print Preview
ALT+C
USING THE ADDRESS BAR:
To do this
Press this
Select the text in the Address bar
ALT+D
Display a list of addresses you’ve typed
F4
When in the Address bar, move the cursor left to the next logical break in the address (period or slash)
CTRL+LEFT ARROW
When in the Address bar, move the cursor right to the next logical break in the address (period or slash)
CTRL+RIGHT ARROW
Add “www.” to the beginning and “.com” to the end of the text typed in the Address bar
CTRL+ENTER
Move forward through the list of AutoComplete matches
UP ARROW
Move back through the list of AutoComplete matches
DOWN ARROW
OPENING IE TOOLBAR MENU:
To do this
Press this
Open the Home menu
ALT+M
Open the Print menu
ALT+R
Open the RSS menu
ALT+J
Open the Tools menu
ALT+O
Open the Safety menu
ALT+S
Open the Help menu
ALT+L
WORKING WITH FEED, HISTORY AND FAVOURITES:
To do this
Press this
Add the current page to your favorites (or subscribe to the feed when in feed preview)
CTRL+D
Delete browsing history
CTRL+SHIFT+DEL
Open an InPrivate Browsing window
CTRL+SHIFT+P
Open the Organize Favorites dialog box
CTRL+B
Move selected item up in the Favorites list in the Organize Favorites dialog box
ALT+UP ARROW
Move selected item down in the Favorites list in the Organize Favorites dialog box
ALT+DOWN ARROW
Open Favorites Center and display your favorites
ALT+C
Open Favorites Center and display your history
CTRL+H
Open Favorites Center and display your feeds
CTRL+J
Open and dock the Favorites Center and display your feeds
CTRL+SHIFT+J
Open the Add to Favorites menu (or open Subscribe to feed when in feed preview)
ALT+Z
Open the Favorites menu from the menu bar
ALT+A
Display all feeds (when in feed view)
ALT+I
Mark a feed as read (when in feed view)
ALT+M
Put cursor in Search box in feed view
ALT+S
EDITING:
To do this
Press this
Remove the selected items and copy them to the Clipboard
CTRL+X
Copy the selected items to the Clipboard
CTRL+C
Insert the contents of the Clipboard at the selected location
CTRL+V
Select all items on the current webpage
CTRL+A
Open Internet Explorer Developer Tools
F12
USING INFORMATION BAR:
To do this
Press this
Move focus to the Information bar
ALT+N
Click the Information bar
SPACEBAR
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Five Tips For Removing Viruses & Spyware

It’s inevitable that clients will infect workstations, PCs, and laptops with spyware and viruses. Regardless of preventive steps, from gateway protection to automated scans to written Internet use policies, malware threats sneak through even layered defenses. What makes the situation worse is that many clients aren’t willing to invest in standalone anti-spyware software, even though they understand the need for minimal antivirus protection.

Some IT professionals advocate simply wiping systems and reinstalling Windows, while others suggest that’s akin to giving up and letting the bad guys win. The truth lies somewhere in between. After making an image copy of the drive (it’s always best to have a fallback option when battling malicious infections), here are the measures I find most effective.

1: Isolate the drive

Many rootkit and Trojan threats are masters of disguise that hide from the operating system as soon as or before Windows starts. I find that even the best antivirus and antispyware tools — including AVG Anti-Virus Professional, Malwarebytes Anti-Malware, and SuperAntiSpyware — sometimes struggle to remove such entrenched infections.

You need systems dedicated to removal. Pull the hard disk from the offending system, slave it to the dedicated test machine, and run multiple virus and spyware scans against the entire slaved drive.

2: Remove temporary files

While the drive is still slaved, browse to all users’ temporary files. These are typically found within the C:\Documents and Settings\Username\Local Settings\Temp directory within Windows XP or the C:\Users\Username\App Data\Local\Temp folder within Windows Vista.

Delete everything within the temporary folders. Many threats hide there seeking to regenerate upon system startup. With the drive still slaved, it’s much easier to eliminate these offending files.

3: Return the drive and repeat those scans

Once you run a complete antivirus scan and execute two full antispyware scans using two current, recently updated and different anti-spyware applications (removing all found infections), return the hard disk to the system. Then, run the same scans again.

Despite the scans and previous sanitization, you may be surprised at the number of remaining active infections the anti-malware applications subsequently find and remove. Only by performing these additional native scans can you be sure you’ve done what you can to locate and remove known threats.

4: Test the system

When you finish the previous three steps, it’s tempting to think a system is good to go. Don’t make that mistake. Boot it up, open the Web browser, and immediately delete all offline files and cookies. Next, go to the Internet Explorer Connection settings (Tools | Internet Options and select the Connections tab within Internet Explorer) to confirm that a malicious program didn’t change a system’s default proxy or LAN connection settings. Correct any issues you find and ensure settings match those required on your network or the client’s network.

Then, visit 12 to 15 random sites. Look for any anomalies, including the obvious popup windows, redirected Web searches, hijacked home pages, and similar frustrations. Don’t consider the machine cleaned until you can open Google, Yahoo, and other search engines and complete searches on a string of a half-dozen terms. Be sure to test the system’s ability to reach popular anti-malware Web sites, such as AVG, Symantec, and Malwarebytes.

5: Dig deeper on remaining infections

If any infection remnants persist, such as redirected searches or blocked access to specific Web sites, try determining the filename for the active process causing the trouble. Trend Micro’s HijackThis, Microsoft’s Process Explorer, and Windows’ native Microsoft System Configuration Utility (Start | Run and type msconfig) are excellent utilities for helping locate offending processes. If necessary, search the registry for an offending executable and remove all incidents. Then, reboot the system and try again.

If a system still proves corrupt or unusable, it’s time to begin thinking about a reinstall. If an infection persists after all these steps, you’re likely in a losing battle.

Other strategies

Some IT consultants swear by fancier tricks than what I’ve outlined above. I’ve investigated KNOPPIX as one alternative. And I’ve had a few occasions in the field where I’ve slaved infected Windows drives to my Macintosh laptop to delete particularly obstinate files in the absence of a boot disk. Other technicians recommend leveraging such tools as Reimage, although I’ve experienced difficulty getting the utility to even recognize common NICs, without which the automated repair tool can’t work.
Source: http://techrepublic.com

Keyboard Shortcuts for Windows 7

Keyboard shortcuts are combinations of two or more keys that, when pressed, can be used to perform a task that would typically require a mouse or other pointing device. Keyboard shortcuts can make it easier to interact with your computer, saving you time and effort as you work with Windows and other programs.

Most programs also provide accelerator keys that can make it easier to work with menus and other commands. Check the menus of programs for accelerator keys. If a letter is underlined in a menu, that usually means that pressing the Alt key in combination with the underlined key will have the same effect as clicking that menu item.

Pressing the Alt key in some programs, such as Paint and WordPad, shows commands that are labeled with additional keys that you can press to use them.

Ease of Access keyboard shortcuts
Press this key To do this
Right Shift for eight seconds Turn Filter Keys on and off
Left Alt+Left Shift+PrtScn (or PrtScn) Turn High Contrast on or off
Left Alt+Left Shift+Num Lock Turn Mouse Keys on or off
Shift five times Turn Sticky Keys on or off
Num Lock for five seconds Turn Toggle Keys on or off
Windows logo key  +U Open the Ease of Access Center

General keyboard shortcuts

Press this key To do this
F1 Display Help
Ctrl+C (or Ctrl+Insert) Copy the selected item
Ctrl+X Cut the selected item
Ctrl+V (or Shift+Insert) Paste the selected item
Ctrl+Z Undo an action
Ctrl+Y Redo an action
Delete (or Ctrl+D) Delete the selected item and move it to the Recycle Bin
Shift+Delete Delete the selected item without moving it to the Recycle Bin first
F2 Rename the selected item
Ctrl+Right Arrow Move the cursor to the beginning of the next word
Ctrl+Left Arrow Move the cursor to the beginning of the previous word
Ctrl+Down Arrow Move the cursor to the beginning of the next paragraph
Ctrl+Up Arrow Move the cursor to the beginning of the previous paragraph
Ctrl+Shift with an arrow key Select a block of text
Shift with any arrow key Select more than one item in a window or on the desktop, or select text within a document
Ctrl with any arrow key+Spacebar Select multiple individual items in a window or on the desktop
Ctrl+A Select all items in a document or window
F3 Search for a file or folder
Alt+Enter Display properties for the selected item
Alt+F4 Close the active item, or exit the active program
Alt+Spacebar Open the shortcut menu for the active window
Ctrl+F4 Close the active document (in programs that allow you to have multiple documents open simultaneously)
Alt+Tab Switch between open items
Ctrl+Alt+Tab Use the arrow keys to switch between open items
Ctrl+Mouse scroll wheel Change the size of icons on the desktop
Windows logo key  +Tab Cycle through programs on the taskbar by using Aero Flip 3-D
Ctrl+Windows logo key  +Tab Use the arrow keys to cycle through programs on the taskbar by using Aero Flip 3-D
Alt+Esc Cycle through items in the order in which they were opened
F6 Cycle through screen elements in a window or on the desktop
F4 Display the address bar list in Windows Explorer
Shift+F10 Display the shortcut menu for the selected item
Ctrl+Esc Open the Start menu
Alt+underlined letter Display the corresponding menu
Alt+underlined letter Perform the menu command (or other underlined command)
F10 Activate the menu bar in the active program
Right Arrow Open the next menu to the right, or open a submenu
Left Arrow Open the next menu to the left, or close a submenu
F5 (or Ctrl+R) Refresh the active window
Alt+Up Arrow View the folder one level up in Windows Explorer
Esc Cancel the current task
Ctrl+Shift+Esc Open Task Manager
Shift when you insert a CD Prevent the CD from automatically playing
Left Alt+Shift Switch the input language when multiple input languages are enabled
Ctrl+Shift Switch the keyboard layout when multiple keyboard layouts are enabled
Right or Left Ctrl+Shift Change the reading direction of text in right-to-left reading languages
Dialog box keyboard shortcuts
Press this key To do this
Ctrl+Tab Move forward through tabs
Ctrl+Shift+Tab Move back through tabs
Tab Move forward through options
Shift+Tab Move back through options
Alt+underlined letter Perform the command (or select the option) that goes with that letter
Enter Replaces clicking the mouse for many selected commands
Spacebar Select or clear the check box if the active option is a check box
Arrow keys Select a button if the active option is a group of option buttons
F1 Display Help
F4 Display the items in the active list
Backspace Open a folder one level up if a folder is selected in the Save As or Open dialog box
Windows logo key keyboard shortcuts
Press this key To do this
Windows logo key Open or close the Start menu.
Windows logo key +Pause Display the System Properties dialog box.
Windows logo key +D Display the desktop.
Windows logo key +M Minimize all windows.
Windows logo key +Shift+M Restore minimized windows to the desktop.
Windows logo key +E Open Computer.
Windows logo key +F Search for a file or folder.
Ctrl+Windows logo key  +F Search for computers (if you’re on a network).
Windows logo key +L Lock your computer or switch users.
Windows logo key +R Open the Run dialog box.
Windows logo key +T Cycle through programs on the taskbar.
Windows logo key +number Start the program pinned to the taskbar in the position indicated by the number. If the program is already running, switch to that program.
Shift+Windows logo key +number Start a new instance of the program pinned to the taskbar in the position indicated by the number.
Ctrl+Windows logo key +number Switch to the last active window of the program pinned to the taskbar in the position indicated by the number.
Alt+Windows logo key+number Open the Jump List for the program pinned to the taskbar in the position indicated by the number.
Windows logo key +Tab Cycle through programs on the taskbar by using Aero Flip 3-D.
Ctrl+Windows logo key  +Tab Use the arrow keys to cycle through programs on the taskbar by using Aero Flip 3-D.
Ctrl+Windows logo key  +B Switch to the program that displayed a message in the notification area.
Windows logo key +Spacebar Preview the desktop.
Windows logo key +Up Arrow Maximize the window.
Windows logo key +Left Arrow Maximize the window to the left side of the screen.
Windows logo key +Right Arrow Maximize the window to the right side of the screen.
Windows logo key +Down Arrow Minimize the window.
Windows logo key +Home Minimize all but the active window.
Windows logo key +Shift+Up Arrow Stretch the window to the top and bottom of the screen.
Windows logo key +Shift+Left Arrow or Right Arrow Move a window from one monitor to another.
Windows logo key +P Choose a presentation display mode.
Windows logo key +G Cycle through gadgets.
Windows logo key +U Open Ease of Access Center.
Windows logo key +X Open Windows Mobility Center.
Windows Explorer keyboard shortcuts
Press this key To do this
Ctrl+N Open a new window
Ctrl+W Close the current window
Ctrl+Shift+N Create a new folder
End Display the bottom of the active window
Home Display the top of the active window
F11 Maximize or minimize the active window
Ctrl+Period (.) Rotate a picture clockwise
Ctrl+Comma (,) Rotate a picture counter-clockwise
Num Lock+Asterisk (*) on numeric keypad Display all subfolders under the selected folder
Num Lock+Plus Sign (+) on numeric keypad Display the contents of the selected folder
Num Lock+Minus Sign (-) on numeric keypad Collapse the selected folder
Left Arrow Collapse the current selection (if it’s expanded), or select the parent folder
Alt+Enter Open the Properties dialog box for the selected item
Alt+P Display the preview pane
Alt+Left Arrow View the previous folder
Backspace View the previous folder
Right Arrow Display the current selection (if it’s collapsed), or select the first subfolder
Alt+Right Arrow View the next folder
Alt+Up Arrow View the parent folder
Ctrl+Shift+E Display all folders above the selected folder
Ctrl+Mouse scroll wheel Change the size and appearance of file and folder icons
Alt+D Select the address bar
Ctrl+E Select the search box
Ctrl+F Select the search box
Taskbar keyboard shortcuts
Press this key To do this
Shift+Click on a taskbar button Open a program or quickly open another instance of a program
Ctrl+Shift+Click on a taskbar button Open a program as an administrator
Shift+Right-click on a taskbar button Show the window menu for the program
Shift+Right-click on a grouped taskbar button Show the window menu for the group
Ctrl+Click on a grouped taskbar button Cycle through the windows of the group
Magnifier keyboard shortcuts
Press this key To do this
Windows logo key + Plus Sign (+) or Minus Sign (-) Zoom in or out
Ctrl+Alt+Spacebar Preview the desktop in full-screen mode
Ctrl+Alt+F Switch to full-screen mode
Ctrl+Alt+L Switch to lens mode
Ctrl+Alt+D Switch to docked mode
Ctrl+Alt+I Invert colors
Ctrl+Alt+arrow keys Pan in the direction of the arrow keys
Ctrl+Alt+R Resize the lens
Windows logo key + Esc Exit Magnifier

Remote Desktop Connection keyboard shortcuts

Press this key To do this
Alt+Page Up Move between programs from left to right.
Alt+Page Down Move between programs from right to left.
Alt+Insert Cycle through programs in the order that they were started in.
Alt+Home Display the Start menu.
Ctrl+Alt+Break Switch between a window and full screen.
Ctrl+Alt+End Display the Windows Security dialog box.
Alt+Delete Display the system menu.
Ctrl+Alt+Minus Sign (-) on the numeric keypad Place a copy of the active window, within the client, on the Terminal server clipboard (provides the same functionality as pressing Alt+PrtScn on a local computer).
Ctrl+Alt+Plus Sign (+) on the numeric keypad Place a copy of the entire client window area on the Terminal server clipboard (provides the same functionality as pressing PrtScn on a local computer).
Ctrl+Alt+Right Arrow “Tab” out of the Remote Desktop controls to a control in the host program (for example, a button or a text box). Useful when the Remote Desktop controls are embedded in another (host) program.
Ctrl+Alt+Left Arrow “Tab” out of the Remote Desktop controls to a control in the host program (for example, a button or a text box). Useful when the Remote Desktop controls are embedded in another (host) program.

Note

Ctrl+Alt+Break and Ctrl+Alt+End are available in all Remote Desktop sessions, even when you’ve set up the remote computer to recognizeWindows keyboard shortcuts.

Paint keyboard shortcuts

The following table contains keyboard shortcuts for working with Paint.

Press this key To do this
Ctrl+N Create a new picture
Ctrl+O Open an existing picture
Ctrl+S Save changes to a picture
F12 Save the picture as a new file
Ctrl+P Print a picture
Alt+F4 Close a picture and its Paint window
Ctrl+Z Undo a change
Ctrl+Y Redo a change
Ctrl+A Select the entire picture
Ctrl+X Cut a selection
Ctrl+C Copy a selection to the Clipboard
Ctrl+V Paste a selection from the Clipboard
Right Arrow Move the selection or active shape right by one pixel
Left Arrow Move the selection or active shape left by one pixel
Down Arrow Move the selection or active shape down by one pixel
Up Arrow Move the selection or active shape up by one pixel
Esc Cancel a selection
Delete Delete a selection
Ctrl+B Bold selected text
Ctrl++ Increase the width of a brush, line, or shape outline by one pixel
Ctrl+- Decrease the width of a brush, line, or shape outline by one pixel
Ctrl+I Italicize selected text
Ctrl+U Underline selected text
Ctrl+E Open the Properties dialog box
Ctrl+W Open the Resize and Skew dialog box
Ctrl+Page Up Zoom in
Ctrl+Page Down Zoom out
F11 View a picture in full-screen mode
Ctrl+R Show or hide the ruler
Ctrl+G Show or hide gridlines
F10 or Alt Display keytips
Shift+F10 Show the current shortcut menu
F1 Open Paint Help
WordPad keyboards shortcuts
Press this key To do this
Ctrl+N Create a new document
Ctrl+O Open an existing document
Ctrl+S Save changes to a document
F12 Save the document as a new file
Ctrl+P Print a document
Alt+F4 Close WordPad
Ctrl+Z Undo a change
Ctrl+Y Redo a change
Ctrl+A Select the entire document
Ctrl+X Cut a selection
Ctrl+C Copy a selection to the Clipboard
Ctrl+V Paste a selection from the Clipboard
Ctrl+B Make selected text bold
Ctrl+I Italicize selected text
Ctrl+U Underline selected text
Ctrl+= Make selected text subscript
Ctrl+Shift+= Make selected text superscript
Ctrl+L Align text left
Ctrl+E Align text center
Ctrl+R Align text right
Ctrl+J Justify text
Ctrl+1 Set single line spacing
Ctrl+2 Set double line spacing
Ctrl+5 Set line spacing to 1.5
Ctrl+Shift+> Increase the font size
Ctrl+Shift+< Decrease the font size
Ctrl+Shift+A Change characters to all capitals
Ctrl+Shift+L Change the bullet style
Ctrl+D Insert a Microsoft Paint drawing
Ctrl+F Find text in a document
F3 Find the next instance of the text in the Find dialog box
Ctrl+H Replace text in a document
Ctrl+Left Arrow Move the cursor one word to the left
Ctrl+Right Arrow Move the cursor one word to the right
Ctrl+Up Arrow Move the cursor to the line above
Ctrl+Down Arrow Move the cursor to the line below
Ctrl+Home Move to the beginning of the document
Ctrl+End Move to the end of the document
Ctrl+Page Up Move up one page
Ctrl+Page Down Move down one page
Ctrl+Delete Delete the next word
F10 Display keytips
Shift+F10 Show the current shortcut menu
F1 Open WordPad Help
Calculator keyboard shortcuts
Press this key To do this
Alt+1 Switch to Standard mode
Alt+2 Switch to Scientific mode
Alt+3 Switch to Programmer mode
Alt+4 Switch to Statistics mode
Ctrl+E Open date calculations
Ctrl+H Turn calculation history on or off
Ctrl+U Open unit conversion
Alt+C Calculate or solve date calculations and worksheets
F1 Open Calculator Help
Ctrl+Q Press the M- button
Ctrl+P Press the M+ button
Ctrl+M Press the MS button
Ctrl+R Press the MR button
Ctrl+L Press the MC button
% Press the % button
F9 Press the +/– button
/ Press the / button
* Press the * button
+ Press the + button
Press the  button
R Press the 1/× button
@ Press the square root button
0-9 Press the number buttons (0-9)
= Press the = button
. Press the . (decimal point) button
Backspace Press the backspace button
Esc Press the C button
Del Press the CE button
Ctrl+Shift+D Clear the calculation history
F2 Edit the calculation history
Up Arrow key Navigate up in the calculation history
Down Arrow key Navigate down in the calculation history
Esc Cancel editing the calculation history
Enter Recalculate the calculation history after editing
F3 Select Degrees in Scientific mode
F4 Select Radians in Scientific mode
F5 Select Grads in Scientific mode
I Press the Inv button in Scientific mode
D Press the Mod button in Scientific mode
Ctrl+S Press the sinh button in Scientific mode
Ctrl+O Press the cosh button in Scientific mode
Ctrl+T Press the tanh button in Scientific mode
( Press the ( button in Scientific mode
) Press the ) button in Scientific mode
N Press the ln button in Scientific mode
; Press the Int button in Scientific mode
S Press the sin button in Scientific mode
O Press the cos button in Scientific mode
T Press the tan button in Scientific mode
M Press the dms button in Scientific mode
P Press the pi button in Scientific mode
V Press the F-E button in Scientific mode
X Press the Exp button in Scientific mode
Q Press the x^2 button in Scientific mode
Y Press the x^y button in Scientific mode
# Press the x^3 button in Scientific mode
L Press the log button in Scientific mode
! Press the n! button in Scientific mode
Ctrl+Y Press the y√x button in Scientific mode
Ctrl+B Press the 3√x button in Scientific mode
Ctrl+G Press the 10x button in Scientific mode
F5 Select Hex in Programmer mode
F6 Select Dec in Programmer mode
F7 Select Oct in Programmer mode
F8 Select Bin in Programmer mode
F12 Select Qword in Programmer mode
F2 Select Dword in Programmer mode
F3 Select Word in Programmer mode
F4 Select Byte in Programmer mode
K Press the RoR button in Programmer mode
J Press the RoL button in Programmer mode
< Press the Lsh button in Programmer mode
> Press the Rsh button in Programmer mode
% Press the Mod button in Programmer mode
( Press the ( button in Programmer mode
) Press the ) button in Programmer mode
| Press the Or button in Programmer mode
^ Press the Xor button in Programmer mode
~ Press the Not button in Programmer mode
& Press the And button in Programmer mode
A-F Press the A-F buttons in Programmer mode
Spacebar Toggles the bit value in Programmer mode
A Press the Average button in Statistics mode
Ctrl+A Press the Average Sq button in Statistics mode
S Press the Sum button in Statistics mode
Ctrl+S Press the Sum Sq button in Statistics mode
T Press the S.D. button in Statistics mode
Ctrl+T Press the Inv S.D. button in Statistics mode
D Press the CAD button in Statistics mode
Windows Journal keyboard shortcuts
Press this key To do this
Ctrl+N Start a new note
Ctrl+O Open a recently used note
Ctrl+S Save changes to a note
Ctrl+Shift+V Move a note to a specific folder
Ctrl+P Print a note
Alt+F4 Close a note and its Journal window
Ctrl+Z Undo a change
Ctrl+Y Redo a change
Ctrl+A Select all items on a page
Ctrl+X Cut a selection
Ctrl+C Copy a selection to the Clipboard
Ctrl+V Paste a selection from the Clipboard
Esc Cancel a selection
Delete Delete a selection
Ctrl+F Start a basic find
Ctrl+G Go to a page
F5 Refresh find results
F5 Refresh the note list
F6 Toggle between a note list and a note
Ctrl+Shift+C Display a shortcut menu for column headings in a note list
F11 View a note in full-screen mode
F1 Open Journal Help
Windows Help viewer keyboard shortcuts
Press this key To do this
Alt+C Display the Table of Contents
Alt+N Display the Connection Settings menu
F10 Display the Options menu
Alt+Left Arrow Move back to the previously viewed topic
Alt+Right Arrow Move forward to the next (previously viewed) topic
Alt+A Display the customer support page
Alt+Home Display the Help and Support home page
Home Move to the beginning of a topic
End Move to the end of a topic
Ctrl+F Search the current topic
Ctrl+P Print a topic
F3 Move the cursor to the search box

67 WINDOWS 7 HIDDEN TIPS & TRICKS

1. Problem Steps Recorder
As the local PC guru you’re probably very used to friends and family asking for help with their computer problems, yet having no idea how to clearly describe what’s going on. It’s frustrating, but Microsoft feels your pain, and Windows 7 will include an excellent new solution in the Problem Steps Recorder.
When any app starts misbehaving under Windows 7 then all your friends need do is click Start, type PSR and press Enter, then click Start Record. If they then work through whatever they’re doing then the Problem Steps Recorder will record every click and keypress, take screen grabs, and package everything up into a single zipped MHTML file when they’re finished, ready for emailing to you. It’s quick, easy and effective, and will save you hours of troubleshooting time.
2. Burn images
Windows 7 finally introduces a feature that other operating systems have had for years – the ability to burn ISO images to CDs or DVDs. And it couldn’t be much easier to use. Just double-click the ISO image, choose the drive with the blank disc, click Burn and watch as your disc is created.
3. Create and mount VHD files
Microsoft’s Virtual PC creates its virtual machine hard drives in VHD files, and Windows 7 can now mount these directly so you can access them in the host system. Click Start, type diskmgmt.msc and press Enter, then click Action > Attach VHD and choose the file you’d like to mount. It will then appear as a virtual drive in Explorer and can be accessed, copied or written just like any other drive.
Click Action > Create VHD and you can now create a new virtual drive of your own (right-click it, select Initialise Disk, and after it’s set up right-click the unallocated space and select New Simple Volume to set this up). Again, you’ll be left with a virtual drive that behaves just like any other, where you can drag and drop files, install programs, test partitioning software or do whatever you like. But it’s actually just this VHD file on your real hard drive which you can easily back up or share with others. Right-click the disk (that’s the left-hand label that says “Disk 2” or whatever) and select Detach VHD to remove it.
The command line DISKPART utility has also been upgraded with tools to detach a VHD file, and an EXPAND command to increase a virtual disk’s maximum size. Don’t play around with this unless you know what you’re doing, though – it’s all too easy to trash your system.
4. Troubleshoot problems
If some part of Windows 7 is behaving strangely, and you don’t know why, then click Control Panel > Find and fix problems (or ‘Troubleshooting’) to access the new troubleshooting packs. These are simple wizards that will resolve common problems, check your settings, clean up your system and more.
5. Startup repair
If you’ve downloaded Windows 7 (and even if you haven’t) it’s a good idea to create a system repair disc straight away in case you run into problems booting the OS later on. Click Start > Maintenance > Create a System Repair Disc, and let Windows 7 build a bootable emergency disc. If the worst does happen then it could be the only way to get your PC running again.
6. Take control
Tired of the kids installing dubious software or running applications you’d rather they left alone? AppLocker is a new Windows 7 feature that ensures users can only run the programs you specify. Don’t worry, that’s easier to set up than it sounds: you can create a rule to allow everything signed by a particular publisher, so choose Microsoft, say, and that one rule will let you run all signed Microsoft applications. Launch GPEDIT.MSC and go to Computer Configuration > Windows Settings > Security Settings > Application Control Policies > AppLocker to get a feel for how this works.
7. Calculate more
At first glance the Windows 7 calculator looks just like Vista’s version, but explore the Mode menu and you’ll see powerful new Statistics and Programmer views. And if you’re clueless about bitwise manipulation, then try the Options menu instead. This offers many different unit conversions (length, weight, volume and more), date calculations (how many days between two dates?), and spreadsheet-type templates to help you calculate vehicle mileage, mortgage rates and more.
Don’t take any Windows 7 applet at face value, then – there are some very powerful new features hidden in the background. Be sure to explore every option in all Windows applets to ensure you don’t miss anything important.
Windows 7 calculator
CALCULATE MORE: The new Calculator is packed with useful features and functionality
8. Switch to a projector
Windows 7 now provides a standard way to switch your display from one monitor to another, or a projector – just press Win+P or run DisplaySwitch.exe and choose your preferred display. (This will have no effect if you’ve only one display connected.)
9. Get a power efficiency report
If you have a laptop, you can use the efficiency calculator to get Windows 7 to generate loads of useful information about its power consumption. Used in the right way, this can help you make huge gains in terms of battery life and performance. To do this you must open a command prompt as an administrator by typing ‘cmd’ in Start Search, and when the cmd icon appears, right-click it and choose Run as administrator.
Then at the command line, just type in ‘powercfg -energy’ (without quotes) and hit Return, and Windows 7 will scan your system looking for ways to improve power efficiency. It will then publish the results in an HTML file, usually in the System32 folder. Just follow the path it gives you to find your report.
10. Understanding System Restore
Using System Restore in previous versions of Windows has been something of a gamble. There’s no way of telling which applications or drivers it might affect – you just have to try it and see.
Windows 7 is different. Right-click Computer, select Properties > System Protection > System Restore > Next, and choose the restore point you’d like to use. Click the new button to ‘Scan for affected programs’ and Windows will tell you which (if any) programs and drivers will be deleted or recovered by selecting this restore point.
11. Set the time zone
System administrators will appreciate the new command line tzutil.exe utility, which lets you set a PC’s time zone from scripts. If you wanted to set a PC to Greenwich Mean Time, for instance, you’d use the command
tzutil /s “gmt standard time”
The command “tzutil /g” displays the current time zone, “tzutil /l” lists all possible time zones, and “tzutil /?” displays details on how the command works.
12. Calibrate your screen
The colours you see on your screen will vary depending on your monitor, graphics cards settings, lighting and more, yet most people use the same default Windows colour profile. And that means a digital photo you think looks perfect might appear very poor to everybody else. Fortunately Windows 7 now provides a Display Colour Calibration Wizard that helps you properly set up your brightness, contrast and colour settings, and a ClearType tuner to ensure text is crisp and sharp. Click Start, type DCCW and press Enter to give it a try.
13. Clean up Live Essentials
Installing Windows Live Essentials will get you the new versions of Mail, Movie Maker, Photo Gallery and others – great. Unfortunately it also includes other components that may be unnecessary, but if you like to keep a clean system then these can be quickly removed.
If you left the default “Set your search provider” option selected during installation, for instance, Windows Live will install Choice Guard, a tool to set your browser home page and search engine, and prevent other programs from changing them. If this causes problems later, or you just decide you don’t need it, then Choice Guard may be removed by clicking Start, typing msiexec /x and pressing [Enter].
Windows Live Essentials also adds an ActiveX Control to help upload your files to Windows Live SkyDrive, as well as the Windows Live Sign-in Assistant, which makes it easier to manage and switch between multiple Windows Live accounts. If you’re sure you’ll never need either then remove them with the Control Panel “Uninstall a Program” applet.
14. Add network support
By default Windows Live MovieMaker won’t let you import files over a network, but a quick Registry tweak will change this. Run REGEDIT, browse to HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Microsoft\Windows Live\Movie Maker, add a DWORD value called AllowNetworkFiles and set it to 1 to add network support.
15. Activate XP mode
If you’ve old but important software that no longer runs under Windows 7, then you could try using XP Mode, a virtual copy of XP that runs in a window on your Windows 7 desktop. But there’s a big potential problem, as XP Mode only works with systems that have hardware virtualisation (AMD-V or Intel VT) built-in and turned on. If you’ve a compatible CPU then this may just be a matter of enabling the option in your BIOS set-up program, however some high profile brands, including Sony Vaio, disable the setting for “security reasons”. And that blocks XP Mode from working, too.
One solution has emerged, but it’s a little risky, as essentially you’ll have to alter a byte in your laptop firmware and hope this doesn’t have any unexpected side-effects. Gulp.
A safer approach might be to use VirtualBox, a virtualisation tool that doesn’t insist on hardware support, but then you will need to find a licensed copy of XP (or whatever other Windows version your software requires) for its virtual machine.
16. Enable virtual Wi-Fi
Windows 7 includes a little-known new feature called Virtual Wi-Fi, which effectively turns your PC or laptop into a software-based router. Any other Wi-Fi-enabled devices within range – a desktop, laptop, an iPod perhaps – will “see” you as a new network and, once logged on, immediately be able to share your internet connection.
This will only work if your wireless adapter driver supports it, though, and not all do. Check with your adapter manufacturer and make sure you’ve installed the very latest drivers to give you the best chance.
Once you have driver support then the easiest approach is to get a network tool that can set up virtual Wi-Fi for you. Virtual Router (below) is free, easy to use and should have you sharing your internet connection very quickly.
Virtual router
If you don’t mind working with the command line, though, maybe setting up some batch files or scripts, then it’s not that difficult to set this up manually. 
17. Explore God Mode
Windows 7 has changed Control Panel a little, but it’s still too difficult to locate all the applets and options that you might need. God Mode, however, while not being particularly godlike, does offer an easier way to access everything you could want from a single folder.
To try this out, create a new folder and rename it to:
Windows 7 god mode
The first part, “Everything” will be the folder name, and can be whatever you want: “Super Control Panel”, “Advanced”, “God Mode” if you prefer.
The extension, ED7BA470-8E54-465E-825C-99712043E01C, must be entered exactly as it is here, though, including the curly brackets. When you press [Enter] this part of the name will disappear, and double-clicking the new folder will display shortcuts to functions in the Action Centre, the Network and Sharing Centre, Power options, troubleshooting tools, user accounts and others – more than 260 options in total.
Windows 7 god mode
18. Right-click everything
At first glance Windows 7 bears a striking resemblance to Vista, but there’s an easy way to begin spotting the differences – just right-click things.
Right-click an empty part of the desktop, for instance, and you’ll find a menu entry to set your screen resolution. No need to go browsing through the display settings any more.
Right-click the Explorer icon on the taskbar for speedy access to common system folders: Documents, Pictures, the Windows folder, and more.
And if you don’t plan on using Internet Explorer then you probably won’t want its icon permanently displayed on the taskbar. Right-click the icon, select ‘Unpin this program from the taskbar’, then go install Firefox, instead.
19. Display the old taskbar button context menu
Right-click a taskbar button, though, and you’ll now see its jumplist menu. That’s a useful new feature, but not much help if you want to access the minimize, maximize, or move options that used to be available. Fortunately there’s an easy way to get the old context menu back – just hold down Ctrl and Shift as you right-click the taskbar button.
20. Desktop slideshow
Windows 7 comes with some very attractive new wallpapers, and it’s not always easy to decide which one you like the best. So why not let choose a few, and let Windows display them all in a desktop slideshow? Right-click an empty part of the desktop, select Personalise > Desktop Background, then hold down Ctrl as you click on the images you like. Choose how often you’d like the images to be changed (anything from daily to once every 10 seconds), select Shuffle if you’d like the backgrounds to appear in a random order, then click Save Changes and enjoy the show.
Windows 7 desktop slideshow
DESKTOP SLIDESHOW: Select multiple background images and Windows will cycle through them
21. RSS-powered wallpaper
And if a slideshow based on your standard wallpaper isn’t enough, then you can always create a theme that extracts images from an RSS feed. For example, Long Zheng has created a few sample themes to illustrate how it works. Jamie Thompson takes this even further, with a theme that always displays the latest BBC news and weather on your desktop. And MakeUseOfhave a quick and easy tutorial showing how RSS can get you those gorgeous Bing photographs as your wallpaper. 
22. Customise the log-on screen
Changing the Windows log-on screen used to involve some complicated and potentially dangerous hacks, but not any more – Windows 7 makes it easy. 

First, browse to HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Authentication\LogonUI\Background in REGEDIT, double-click the DWORD key called OEMBackground (not there? Create it) and set its value to 1.

Now find a background image you’d like to use. Make sure it’s less than 256KB in size, and matches the aspect ratio of your screen as it’ll be stretched to fit.

Next, copy that image into the %windir%\system32\oobe\info\backgrounds folder (create the info\backgrounds folders if they don’t exist). Rename the image to backgroundDefault.jpg, reboot, and you should now have a custom log-on image.

Alternatively, use a free tweaking tool to handle everything for you. Logon Changer displays a preview so you can see how the log-on screen will look without rebooting, while the Logon Screen Rotator accepts multiple images and will display a different one every time you log on.
23. Recover screen space
The new Windows 7 taskbar acts as one big quick launch toolbar that can hold whatever program shortcuts you like (just right-click one and select Pin To Taskbar). And that’s fine, except it does consume a little more screen real estate than we’d like. Shrink it to a more manageable size by right-clicking the Start orb, then Properties > Taskbar > Use small icons > OK.
24. Enjoy a retro taskbar
Windows 7 now combines taskbar buttons in a way that saves space, but also makes it more difficult to tell at a glance whether an icon represents a running application or a shortcut. If you prefer a more traditional approach, then right-click the taskbar, select Properties, and set Taskbar Buttons to “Combine when taskbar is full”. You’ll now get a clear and separate button for each running application, making them much easier to identify.
25. Remove taskbar buttons
One problem with the previous tip is the buttons will gobble up valuable taskbar real estate, but you can reduce the impact of this by removing their text captions. Launch REGEDIT, browse to HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Control Panel\Desktop\WindowMetrics, add a string called MinWidth, set it to 54, and reboot to see the results.
26. Restore the Quick Launch Toolbar
If you’re unhappy with the new taskbar, even after shrinking it, then it only takes a moment to restore the old Quick Launch Toolbar.
Right-click the taskbar, choose Toolbars > New Toolbar, type “%UserProfile%\AppData\Roaming\Microsoft\Internet Explorer\Quick Launch” (less the quotes) into the Folder box and click Select Folder.
Now right-click the taskbar, clear ‘Lock the taskbar’, and you should see the Quick Launch toolbar, probably to the right. Right-click its divider, clear Show Text and Show Title to minimise the space it takes up. Complete the job by right-clicking the bar and selecting View > Small Icons for the true retro look.
27. Custom power switch
By default, Windows 7 displays a plain text ‘Shut down’ button on the Start menu, but it only takes a moment to change this action to something else. If you reboot your PC a few times every day then that might make more sense as a default action: right-click the Start orb, select Properties and set the ‘Power boot action’ to ‘Restart’ to make it happen.
28. Auto arrange your desktop
If your Windows 7 desktop has icons scattered everywhere then you could right-click it and select View > Auto arrange, just as in Vista. But a simpler solution is just to press and hold down F5, and Windows will automatically arrange its icons for you.
29. Disable smart window arrangement
Windows 7 features interesting new ways to intelligently arrange your windows, so that (for example) if you drag a window to the top of the screen then it will maximise. We like the new system, but if you find it distracting then it’s easily disabled. Run REGEDIT, go to HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Control Panel\Desktop, set WindowArrangementActive to 0, reboot, and your windows will behave just as they always did.
30. Browse your tasks
If you prefer the keyboard over the mouse, you will love browsing the taskbar using this nifty shortcut. Press Windows and T, and you move the focus to the left-most icon on the taskbar. Then use your arrow keys to change the focus to other icons, and you get a live preview of every window.
31. Display your drives
Click Computer in Windows 7 and you might see a strange lack of drives, but don’t panic, it’s just Microsoft trying to be helpful: drives like memory card readers are no longer displayed if they’re empty. We think it’s an improvement, but if you disagree then it’s easy to get your empty drives back. Launch Explorer, click Tools > Folder Options > View and clear ‘Hide empty drives in the computer folder’.
32. See more detail
The new and improved Windows 7 magnifier offers a much easier way to zoom in on any area of the screen. Launch it and you can now define a scale factor and docking position, and once activated it can track your keyboard focus around the screen. Press Tab as you move around a dialog box, say, and it’ll automatically zoom in on the currently active control.
33. Hiding the Windows Live Messenger iconIf you use Windows Live Messenger a lot, you’ll have noticed that the icon now resides on the taskbar, where you can easily change status and quickly send an IM to someone. If you prefer to keep Windows Live Messenger in the system tray, where it’s been for previous releases, just close Windows Live Messenger, edit the shortcut properties and set the application to run in Windows Vista compatibility mode.
34. Customise UAC
Windows Vista’s User Account Control was a good idea in practice, but poor implementation put many people off – it raised far too many alerts. Fortunately Windows 7 displays less warnings by default, and lets you further fine-tune UAC to suit your preferred balance between security and a pop-up free life (Start > Control Panel > Change User Account Control Settings).
35. Use Sticky Notes
The Sticky Notes app is both simpler and more useful in Windows 7. Launch StikyNot.exe and you can type notes at the keyboard; right-click a note to change its colour; click the + sign on the note title bar to add another note; and click a note and press Alt + 4 to close the note windows (your notes are automatically saved).
36. Open folder in new process
By default Windows 7 opens folders in the same process. This saves system resources, but means one folder crash can bring down the entire shell. If your system seems unstable, or you’re doing something in Explorer that regularly seems to causes crashes, then open Computer, hold down Shift, right-click on your drive and select Open in New Process. The folder will now be launched in a separate process, and so a crash is less likely to affect anything else.
37. Watch more videos
Windows Media Player 12 is a powerful program, but it still won’t play all the audio and video files you’ll find online. Fortunately the first freeware Windows 7 codecs package [shark007.net/win7codecs.html] has been released, and installing it could get your troublesome multimedia files playing again.
38. Preview fonts
Open the Fonts window in Windows XP and Vista and you’ll see the font names, probably with icons to tell you whether they’re TrueType or OpenType, but that’s about it. Windows 7 sees some useful font-related improvements.
Open the new fonts window and you’ll find a little preview for every font, giving you a quick idea of how they’re going to look.
The tedium of scrolling through multiple entries for each family, like Times New Roman, Times New Roman Bold, Times New Roman Bold Italic and so on, has finally ended. There’s now just a single entry for each font (though you can still see all other members of the family).
And there’s a new OpenType font, Gabriola, added to the mix. It’s an attractive script font, well worth a try the next time you need a stylish document that stands out from the crowd.
39. Restore your gadgets
Windows 7 has tightened up its security by refusing to run gadgets if UAC has been turned off, so limiting the damage malicious unsigned gadgets can do to your system. If you’ve disabled UAC, miss your gadgets and are happy to accept the security risk, though, there’s an easy Registry way to get everything back to normal. Run REGEDIT, go to HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Sidebar\Settings, create a new DWORD value called AllowElevatedProcess and set it to 1. Your gadgets should start working again right away.
40. New WordPad formats
By default WordPad will save documents in Rich Text Format, just as before. But browse the Save As Format list and you’ll see you can also save (or open, actually) files in the Office 2007 .docx or OpenDocument .odt formats.
41. Protect your data
USB flash drives are convenient, portable, and very easy to lose. Which is a problem, especially if they’re carrying sensitive data. Fortunately Windows 7 has the solution: encrypt your documents with an extension of Microsoft’s BitLocker technology, and only someone with the password will be able to access it. Right-click your USB flash drive, select Turn on BitLocker and follow the instructions to protect your private files.
Bitlocker
PROTECT YOUR DATA: Your USB flash drives can easily be encrypted with BitLocker
42. Minimise quickly with shakeIf you have multiple windows open on your desktop and things are getting too cluttered, it used to be a time-consuming process to close them all down. In Windows 7 you can use the Aero Shake feature to minimise everything in seconds, using a cool mouse gesture. Grab the title bar of the window you wish to keep open and give it a shake, and rejoice in a clear desktop area.
43. Configure your favourite music
The Windows 7 Media Centre now comes with an option to play your favourite music, which by default creates a changing list of songs based on your ratings, how often you play them, and when they were added (it’s assumed you’ll prefer songs you’ve added in the last 30 days). If this doesn’t work then you can tweak how Media Centre decides what a “favourite” tune is- click Tasks > Settings > Music > Favourite Music and configure the program to suit your needs.
44. Customise System Restore
There was very little you could do to configure System Restore in Vista, but Windows 7 improves the situation with a couple of useful setup options.
Click the Start orb, right-click Computer and select Properties > System Protection > Configure, and set the Max Usage value to a size that suits your needs (larger to hold more restore points, smaller to save disk space).
And if you don’t need System Restore to save Windows settings then choose the “Only restore previous versions of files” option. Windows 7 won’t back up your Registry, which means you’ll squeeze more restore points and file backups into the available disk space. System Restore is much less likely to get an unbootable PC working again, though, so use this trick at your own risk.
45. Run As
Hold down Shift, right-click any program shortcut, and you’ll see an option to run the program as a different user, handy if you’re logged in to the kids’ limited account and need to run something with higher privileges. This isn’t really a new feature – Windows XP had a Run As option that did the same thing – but Microsoft stripped it out of Vista, so it’s good to see it’s had a change of heart.
46. Search privacy
By default Windows 7 will remember your PC search queries, and display the most recent examples when searching in Windows Explorer. If you’re sharing a PC and don’t want everyone to see your searches, then launch GPEDIT.MSC, go to User Configuration > Administrative Templates > Windows Components > Windows Explorer, double-click “Turn off display of recent search entries…” and click Enabled > OK.
47. Tweak PC volume
By default Windows 7 will now automatically reduce the volume of your PC’s sounds whenever it detects you’re making or receiving PC-based phone calls. If this proves annoying (or maybe you’d like it to turn off other sounds altogether) then you can easily change the settings accordingly. Just right-click the speaker icon in your taskbar, select Sounds > Communications, and tell Windows what you’d like it to do.
48. Rearrange the system tray
With Windows 7 we finally see system tray icons behave in a similar way to everything else on the taskbar. So if you want to rearrange them, then go right ahead, just drag and drop them into the order you like. You can even move important icons outside of the tray, drop them onto the desktop, then put them back when you no longer need to keep an eye on them.
49. Extend your battery life
Windows 7 includes new power options that will help to improve your notebook’s battery life. To see them, click Start, type Power Options and click the Power Options link, then click Change Plan Settings for your current plan and select Change Advanced Settings. Expand Multimedia Settings, for instance, and you’ll see a new “playing video” setting that can be set to optimise power savings rather than performance. Browse through the other settings and ensure they’re set up to suit your needs.
50. Write crash dump files
Windows 7 won’t create memory.dmp crash files if you’ve less than 25GB of free hard drive space, annoying if you’ve installed the Windows debugging tools and want to diagnose your crashes. You can turn this feature off, though: browse to HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\CrashControl, create a new DWORD value called AlwaysKeepMemoryDump, set it to 1, and the crash dump file will now always be saved.
51. Find bottlenecks
From what we’ve seen so far Windows 7 is already performing better than Vista, but if your PC seems sluggish then it’s now much easier to uncover the bottleneck. Click Start, type RESMON and press Enter to launch the Resource Monitor, then click the CPU, Memory, Disk or Network tabs. Windows 7 will immediately show which processes are hogging the most system resources.
The CPU view is particularly useful, and provides something like a more powerful version of Task Manager. If a program has locked up, for example, then right-click its name in the list and select Analyze Process. Windows will then try to tell you why it’s hanging – the program might be waiting for another process, perhaps – which could give you the information you need to fix the problem.
Resource monitor
FIND BOTTLENECKS: Resource monitor keeps a careful eye on exactly how your PC is being used
52. Keyboard shortcuts
Windows 7 supports several useful new keyboard shortcuts.
Alt+P
Display/ hide the Explorer preview pane
Windows Logo+G
Display gadgets in front of other windows
Windows Logo++ (plus key)
Zoom in, where appropriate
Windows Logo+- (minus key)
Zoom out, where appropriate
Windows Logo+Up 
Maximise the current window
Windows Logo+Down
Minimise the current window
Windows Logo+Left
Snap to the left hand side of the screen
Windows Logo+Right
Snap to the right hand side of the screen
Windows Logo+Home
Minimise/ restore everything except the current window
53. Drag and drop to the command line
When working at the command line you’ll often need to access files, which usually means typing lengthy paths and hoping you’ve got them right. But Windows 7 offers an easier way. Simply drag and drop the file onto your command window and the full path will appear, complete with quotes and ready to be used.
This feature isn’t entirely new: you could do this in Windows XP, too, but drag and drop support disappeared in Vista. There does seem to be a new Windows 7 complication, though, in that it only seems to work when you open the command prompt as a regular user. Run cmd.exe as an administrator and, while it accepts dropped files, the path doesn’t appear.
54. Customise your jumplists
Right-click an icon on your taskbar, perhaps Notepad, and you’ll see a jumplist menu that provides easy access to the documents you’ve been working on recently. But maybe there’s another document that you’d like to be always available? Then drag and drop it onto the taskbar icon, and it’ll be pinned to the top of the jumplist for easier access. Click the pin to the right of the file name, or right-click it and select “Unpin from this list” when you need to remove it.
55. Faster program launches
If you’ve launched one instance of a program but want to start another, then don’t work your way back through the Start menu. It’s much quicker to just hold down Shift and click on the program’s icon (or middle-click it), and Windows 7 will start a new instance for you.
56. Speedy video access
Want faster access to your Videos folder? Windows 7 now lets you add it to the Start menu. Just right-click the Start orb, click Properties > Start Menu > Customize, and set the Videos option to “Display as a link”. If you’ve a TV tuner that works with Windows 7 then you’ll appreciate the new option to display the Recorded TV folder on the Start menu, too.
57. Run web searches
The Windows 7 search tool can now be easily extended to search online resources, just as long as someone creates an appropriate search connector. To add Flickr support, say, visit I Started Something, click Download the Connector, choose the Open option and watch as it’s downloaded (the file is tiny, it’ll only take a moment). A “Flickr Search” option will be added to your Searches folder, and you’ll be able to search images from your desktop.
58. Schedule Media Centre downloads
You can now tell Windows Media Centre to download data at a specific time, perhaps overnight, a useful way to prevent it sapping your bandwidth for the rest of the day. Launch Media Centre, go to Tasks > Settings > General > Automatic Download Options, and set the download start and stop times that you’d like it to use.
59. Multi-threaded Robocopies
Anyone who’s ever used the excellent command-line robocopy tool will appreciate the new switches introduced with Windows 7. Our favourite, /MT, can improve speed by carrying out multi-threaded copies with the number of threads you specify (you can have up to 128, though that might be going a little too far). Enter robocopy /? at a command line for the full details.
60. Load IE faster
Some Internet Explorer add-ons can take a while to start, dragging down the browser’s performance, but at least IE8 can now point a finger at the worst resource hogs. Click Tools > Manage Add-ons, check the Load Time in the right-hand column, and you’ll immediately see which browser extensions are slowing you down.
61. An Alt+Tab alternative
You want to access one of the five Explorer windows you have open, but there are so many other programs running that Alt+Tab makes it hard to pick out what you need. The solution? Hold down the Ctrl key while you click on the Explorer icon. Windows 7 will then cycle through the Explorer windows only, a much quicker way to locate the right one. And of course this works with any application that has multiple windows open.
62. Block annoying alerts
Just like Vista, Windows 7 will display a suitably stern warning if it thinks your antivirus, firewall or other security settings are incorrect.
But unlike Vista, if you disagree then you can now turn off alerts on individual topics. If you no longer want to see warnings just because you’ve dared to turn off the Windows firewall, say, then click Control Panel > System and Security > Action Centre > Change Action Centre settings, clear the Network Firewall box and click OK.
63. Parallel defrags
The standard Windows 7 defragger offers a little more control than we saw in Vista, and the command line version also has some interesting new features. The /r switch will defrag multiple drives in parallel, for instance (they’ll obviously need to be physically separate drives for this to be useful). The /h switch runs the defrag at a higher than normal priority, and the /u switch provides regular progress reports so you can see exactly what’s going on. Enter the command
defrag /c /h /u /r
in a command window to speedily defrag a system with multiple drives, or enter defrag /? to view the new options for yourself.
64. Fix Explorer
The Windows 7 Explorer has a couple of potential annoyances. Launching Computer will no longer display system folders like Control Panel or Recycle Bin, for instance. And if you’re drilling down through a complicated folder structure in the right-hand pane of Explorer, the left-hand tree won’t always expand to follow what you’re doing, which can make it more difficult to see exactly where you are. Fortunately there’s a quick fix: click Organize > Folder and Search Options, check “Show all folders” and “Automatically expand to current folder”, and click OK.
65. Faster file handing
If you hold down Shift while right-clicking a file in Explorer, then you’ll find the Send To file now includes all your main user folders: Contacts, Documents, Downloads, Music and more. Choose any of these and your file will be moved there immediately.
66. Create folder favourites
If you’re regularly working on the same folder in Explorer then select it in the right-hand page, right-click Favourites on the left-hand menu, and select Add to Favourites. It’ll then appear at the bottom of the favourites list for easy one-click access later.
67. Disable hibernation
By default Windows 7 will permanently consume a chunk of your hard drive with its hibernation file, but if you never use sleep, and always turn your PC off, then this will never actually be used. To disable hibernation and recover a little hard drive space, launch REGEDIT, browse to HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\Power, then set both HibernateEnabled and HiberFileSizePerfect to zero.

All About SAM Files

What is SAM?

SAM is short for Security Accounts Manager, which is located on the PDC and has information on all user accounts and passwords. Most of the time while the PDC is running, it is being accessed or used.

What do I do with a copy of SAM?


You get passwords. First use a copy of SAMDUMP.EXE to extract the user info out of it. You do not need to import this data into the Registry of your home machine to play with it. You can simply load it up into one of the many applications for cracking passwords, such as L0phtCrack, which is available from: http://www.L0phtCrack.com


Of interest to hackers is the fact that all access control and assorted parameters are located in the Registry. The Registry contains thousands of individual items of data, and is grouped together into “keys” or some type of optional value. These keys are grouped together into subtrees — placing like keys together and making copies of others into separate trees for more convenient system access.

The Registry is divided into four separate subtrees. These subtrees are called

  • HKEY_CLASSES_ROOT
  • HKEY_CURRENT_USER
  • HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE
  • HKEY_USERS

We’ll go through them from most important to the hacker to least important to the hacker.

First and foremost is the HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE subtree. It contains five different keys. These keys are as follows:

  • SAM and SECURITY – These keys contain the info such as user rights, user and group info for the domain (or workgroup if there is no domain), and passwords. In the NT hacker game of capture the flag, this is the flag. Bag this and all bets are off.

The keys are binary data only (for security reasons) and are typically not accessible unless you are an Administrator or in the Administrators group. It is easier to copy the data and play with it offline than to work on directly.

  • HARDWARE – this is a storage database of throw-away data that describes the hardware components of the computer. Device drivers and applications build this database during boot and update it during runtime (although most of the database is updated during the boot process). When the computer is rebooted, the data is built again from scratch. It is not recommended to directly edit this particular database unless you can read hex easily.

There are three subkeys under HARDWARE, these are the Description key, the DeviceMap key, and the ResourceMap key. The Description key has describes each hardware resource, the DeviceMap key has data in it specific to individual groups of drivers, and the ResourceMap key tells which driver goes with which resource.

  • SYSTEM – This key contains basic operating stuff like what happens at startup, what device drivers are loaded, what services are in use, etc. These are split into ControlSets which have unique system configurations (some bootable, some not), with each ControlSet containing service data and OS components for that ControlSet. Ever had to boot from the “Last Known Good” configuration because something got hosed? That is a ControlSet stored here.
  • SOFTWARE – This key has info on software loaded locally. File associations, OLE info, and some miscellaneous configuration data is located here.


The second most important main key is HKEY_USERS. It contains a subkey for each local user who accesses the system, either locally or remotely. If the server is a part of a domain and logs in across the network, their subkey is not stored here, but on a Domain Controller. Things such as Desktop settings and user profiles are stored here.

The third and fourth main keys, HKEY_CURRENT_USER and HKEY_CLASSES_ROOT, contain copies of portions of HKEY_USERS and HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE respectively. HKEY_CURRENT_USER contains exactly would you would expect a copy of the subkey from HKEY_USERS of the currently logged in user. HKEY_CLASSES_ROOT contains a part of HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE, specifically from the SOFTWARE subkey. File associations, OLE configuration and dependency information.

What are hives?

Hives are the major subdivisions of all of these subtrees, keys, subkeys, and values that make up the Registry. They contain “related” data.



All hives are stored in %systemroot%\SYSTEM32\CONFIG. The major hives and their files are as follows:

Hive

File

Backup File

HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE

SOFTWARE

SOFTWARE.LOG

HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SECURITY

SECURITY

SECURITY.LOG

HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM

SYSTEM

SYSTEM.LOG

HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SAM

SAM

SAM.LOG

HKEY_CURRENT_USER

USERxxx

ADMINxxx

USERxxx.LOG

ADMINxxx.LOG

HKEY_USERS\.DEFAULT

DEFAULT

DEFAULT.LOG

Hackers should look for the SAM file, with the SAM.LOG file as a secondary target. This contains the password info.

Hive

File

Backup File

HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE

SOFTWARE

SOFTWARE.LOG

HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SECURITY

SECURITY

SECURITY.LOG

HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM

SYSTEM

SYSTEM.LOG

HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SAM

SAM

SAM.LOG

HKEY_CURRENT_USER

USERxxx

ADMINxxx

USERxxx.LOG

ADMINxxx.LOG

HKEY_USERS\.DEFAULT

DEFAULT

DEFAULT.LOG

Hackers should look for the SAM file, with the SAM.LOG file as a secondary target. This contains the password info.

For ease of use, the Registry is divided into five separate structures that represent the Registry database in its entirety. These five groups are known as Keys, and are discussed below:

HKEY_CURRENT_USER

This registry key contains the configuration information for the user that is currently logged in. The users folders, screen colors, and control panel settings are stored here. This information is known as a User Profile.

HKEY_USERS

In windowsNT 3.5x, user profiles were stored locally (by default) in the systemroot\system32\config directory. In NT4.0, they are stored in the systemroot\profiles directory. User-Specific information is kept there, as well as common, system wide user information.

This change in storage location has been brought about to parallel the way in which Windows95 handles its user profiles. In earlier releases of NT, the user profile was stored as a single file – either locally in the \config directory or centrally on a server. In windowsNT 4, the single user profile has been broken up into a number of subdirectories located below the \profiles directory. The reason for this is mainly due to the way in which the Win95 and WinNT4 operating systems use the underlying directory structure to form part of their new user interface.

HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE

This key contains configuration information particular to the computer. This information is stored in the systemroot\system32\config directory as persistent operating system files, with the exception of the volatile hardware key.

The information gleaned from this configuration data is used by applications, device drivers, and the WindowsNT 4 operating system. The latter usage determines what system configuration data to use, without respect to the user currently logged on. For this reason the HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE regsitry key is of specific importance to administrators who want to support and troubleshoot NT 4.

HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE is probably the most important key in the registry and it contains five subkeys:

  • Hardware: Database that describes the physical hardware in the computer, the way device drivers use that hardware, and mappings and related data that link kernel-mode drivers with various user-mode code. All data in this sub-tree is re-created everytime the system is started.
  • SAM: The security accounts manager. Security information for user and group accounts and for the domains in NT 4 server.
  • Security: Database that contains the local security policy, such as specific user rights. This key is used only by the NT 4 security subsystem.
  • Software: Pre-computer software database. This key contains data about software installed on the local computer, as well as configuration information.
  • System: Database that controls system start-up, device driver loading, NT 4 services and OS behavior.

Information about the HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SAM Key

This subtree contains the user and group accounts in the SAM database for the local computer. For a computer that is running NT 4, this subtree also contains security information for the domain. The information contained within the SAM registry key is what appears in the user interface of the User Manager utility, as well as in the lists of users and groups that appear when you make use of the Security menu commands in NT4 explorer.

Information about the HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\Security key

This subtree contains security information for the local computer. This includes aspects such as assigning user rights, establishing password policies, and the membership of local groups, which are configurable in User Manager.

HKEY_CLASSES_ROOT

The information stored here is used to open the correct application when a file is opened by using Explorer and for Object Linking and Embedding. It is actually a window that reflects information from the HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\Software subkey.

HKEY_CURRENT_CONFIG

The information contained in this key is to configure settings such as the software and device drivers to load or the display resolution to use. This key has a software and system subkeys, which keep track of configuration information.

Understanding Hives

The registry is divided into parts called hives. These hives are mapped to a single file and a .LOG file. These files are in the systemroot\system32\config directory.

Registry Hive

File Name

HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SAM

SAM and SAM.LOG

HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SECURITY

Security and Security.LOG

HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE

Software and Software.LOG

HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM

System and System.ALT

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