To do this
Press this
Display Help
Toggle between full-screen and regular views of the browser window
Move forward through the items on a webpage, the Address bar, or the Favorites bar
Move back through the items on a webpage, the Address bar, or the Favorites bar
Start Caret Browsing
Go to your home page
Go to the next page
Go to the previous page
Display a shortcut menu for a link
Move forward through frames and browser elements
Scroll toward the beginning of a document
Scroll toward the end of a document
Scroll toward the beginning of a document in larger increments
Scroll toward the end of a document in larger increments
Move to the beginning of a document
Move to the end of a document
Find on this page
Refresh the current webpage
Refresh the current webpage, even if the time stamp for the web version and your locally stored version are the same
Stop downloading a page
Open a new website or page
Open a new window
Open a new InPrivate Browsing window
Duplicate tab (open current tab in a new tab)
Reopen the last tab you closed
Close the current window (if you only have one tab open)
Save the current page
Print the current page or active frame
Activate a selected link
Open Favorites
Open History
Open Feeds
Open the Page menu
Open the Tools menu
Open the Help menu
The following table describes shortcuts used when working with tabs.
To do this
Press this
Open links in a new tab in the background
Open links in a new tab in the foreground
Open a new tab in the foreground
Switch between tabs
Close current tab (or the current window if tabbed browsing is disabled)
Open a new tab in the foreground from the Address bar
Switch to a specific tab number
CTRL+n (where n is a number between 1 and 8)
Switch to the last tab
Close other tabs
Toggle Quick Tabs (thumbnail view) on or off
To do this
Press this
Increase zoom (+ 10%)
Decrease zoom (- 10%)
Zoom to 100%
To do this
Press this
Go to the search box
Open your search query in a new tab
Open the search provider menu
To do this
Press this
Set printing options and print the page
Change paper, headers and footers, orientation, and margins for this page
Display the first page to be printed
Display the previous page to be printed
Type the number of the page you want displayed
Display the next page to be printed
Display the last page to be printed
Specify how you want frames to print (this option is available only if you are printing a webpage that uses frames)
Close Print Preview
To do this
Press this
Select the text in the Address bar
Display a list of addresses you’ve typed
When in the Address bar, move the cursor left to the next logical break in the address (period or slash)
When in the Address bar, move the cursor right to the next logical break in the address (period or slash)
Add “www.” to the beginning and “.com” to the end of the text typed in the Address bar
Move forward through the list of AutoComplete matches
Move back through the list of AutoComplete matches
To do this
Press this
Open the Home menu
Open the Print menu
Open the RSS menu
Open the Tools menu
Open the Safety menu
Open the Help menu
To do this
Press this
Add the current page to your favorites (or subscribe to the feed when in feed preview)
Delete browsing history
Open an InPrivate Browsing window
Open the Organize Favorites dialog box
Move selected item up in the Favorites list in the Organize Favorites dialog box
Move selected item down in the Favorites list in the Organize Favorites dialog box
Open Favorites Center and display your favorites
Open Favorites Center and display your history
Open Favorites Center and display your feeds
Open and dock the Favorites Center and display your feeds
Open the Add to Favorites menu (or open Subscribe to feed when in feed preview)
Open the Favorites menu from the menu bar
Display all feeds (when in feed view)
Mark a feed as read (when in feed view)
Put cursor in Search box in feed view
To do this
Press this
Remove the selected items and copy them to the Clipboard
Copy the selected items to the Clipboard
Insert the contents of the Clipboard at the selected location
Select all items on the current webpage
Open Internet Explorer Developer Tools
To do this
Press this
Move focus to the Information bar
Click the Information bar

Five Tips For Removing Viruses & Spyware

It’s inevitable that clients will infect workstations, PCs, and laptops with spyware and viruses. Regardless of preventive steps, from gateway protection to automated scans to written Internet use policies, malware threats sneak through even layered defenses. What makes the situation worse is that many clients aren’t willing to invest in standalone anti-spyware software, even though they understand the need for minimal antivirus protection.

Some IT professionals advocate simply wiping systems and reinstalling Windows, while others suggest that’s akin to giving up and letting the bad guys win. The truth lies somewhere in between. After making an image copy of the drive (it’s always best to have a fallback option when battling malicious infections), here are the measures I find most effective.

1: Isolate the drive

Many rootkit and Trojan threats are masters of disguise that hide from the operating system as soon as or before Windows starts. I find that even the best antivirus and antispyware tools — including AVG Anti-Virus Professional, Malwarebytes Anti-Malware, and SuperAntiSpyware — sometimes struggle to remove such entrenched infections.

You need systems dedicated to removal. Pull the hard disk from the offending system, slave it to the dedicated test machine, and run multiple virus and spyware scans against the entire slaved drive.

2: Remove temporary files

While the drive is still slaved, browse to all users’ temporary files. These are typically found within the C:\Documents and Settings\Username\Local Settings\Temp directory within Windows XP or the C:\Users\Username\App Data\Local\Temp folder within Windows Vista.

Delete everything within the temporary folders. Many threats hide there seeking to regenerate upon system startup. With the drive still slaved, it’s much easier to eliminate these offending files.

3: Return the drive and repeat those scans

Once you run a complete antivirus scan and execute two full antispyware scans using two current, recently updated and different anti-spyware applications (removing all found infections), return the hard disk to the system. Then, run the same scans again.

Despite the scans and previous sanitization, you may be surprised at the number of remaining active infections the anti-malware applications subsequently find and remove. Only by performing these additional native scans can you be sure you’ve done what you can to locate and remove known threats.

4: Test the system

When you finish the previous three steps, it’s tempting to think a system is good to go. Don’t make that mistake. Boot it up, open the Web browser, and immediately delete all offline files and cookies. Next, go to the Internet Explorer Connection settings (Tools | Internet Options and select the Connections tab within Internet Explorer) to confirm that a malicious program didn’t change a system’s default proxy or LAN connection settings. Correct any issues you find and ensure settings match those required on your network or the client’s network.

Then, visit 12 to 15 random sites. Look for any anomalies, including the obvious popup windows, redirected Web searches, hijacked home pages, and similar frustrations. Don’t consider the machine cleaned until you can open Google, Yahoo, and other search engines and complete searches on a string of a half-dozen terms. Be sure to test the system’s ability to reach popular anti-malware Web sites, such as AVG, Symantec, and Malwarebytes.

5: Dig deeper on remaining infections

If any infection remnants persist, such as redirected searches or blocked access to specific Web sites, try determining the filename for the active process causing the trouble. Trend Micro’s HijackThis, Microsoft’s Process Explorer, and Windows’ native Microsoft System Configuration Utility (Start | Run and type msconfig) are excellent utilities for helping locate offending processes. If necessary, search the registry for an offending executable and remove all incidents. Then, reboot the system and try again.

If a system still proves corrupt or unusable, it’s time to begin thinking about a reinstall. If an infection persists after all these steps, you’re likely in a losing battle.

Other strategies

Some IT consultants swear by fancier tricks than what I’ve outlined above. I’ve investigated KNOPPIX as one alternative. And I’ve had a few occasions in the field where I’ve slaved infected Windows drives to my Macintosh laptop to delete particularly obstinate files in the absence of a boot disk. Other technicians recommend leveraging such tools as Reimage, although I’ve experienced difficulty getting the utility to even recognize common NICs, without which the automated repair tool can’t work.

Open Unknown Files With Notepad

Add Notepad to the contextual menu (right-button menu):

Create [HKEY_CLASSES_ROOT\*\shell\Open with Notepad\command], click on command, then double-click on “(Default)” in the right pane and edit the string to read notepad.exe %1

Open unknown files in Notepad when clicking on them:

– Create [HKEY_CLASSES_ROOT\Unknown\shell\open\command], click on command, then double-click on “(Default)” in the right pane and edit the string to read notepad.exe %1

– If Notepad still does not open unknown files when you click on them, delete the key openas (export it first)

Note: In Windows Explorer, Open With > Choose Program… will not work anymore.

Keyboard Shortcuts For Internet Explorer

  • To Select all items on a webpage use CTRL and A.
  • To Copy a selected item to the clipboard use CTRL and C.
  • To Paste an item from the clipboard into a document use CTRL and V.
  • To Add the current page/document to your favorites use CTRL and D.
  • To Open the IE search utility use CTRL and E.
  • To Open the FIND box to search the current document use CTRL and F.
  • To Open the History utility use CTRL and H.
  • To Open the Favorites utility use CTRL and I.
  • To Go to a new location/document use CTRL and L. Also CTRL and O.
  • To Open a new Explorer window use CTRL and N.
  • To Print the current page/document use CTRL and P.
  • To Refresh the current page/document use CTRL and R. Also you can use the F5 key.
  • To Save the current document/page use CTRL and S.
  • To Close the current Explorer window use CTRL and W.
  • These are achieved by holding down and pressing a combination of keys
  • To go to your default homepage use ALT and the HOME key.
  • To go forward one page (equivalent to the FORWARD button) use ALT and the right arrow key.
  • To go back one page (equivalent to the BACK button) use ALT and the left arrow key.
  • Type URL without a Mouse Click in IE you can use Alt + D key combination to highlight the address bar.
  • This allows you to enter a URL without the mouse click.
  • This will be helpful for the laptop users who find it uneasy to use their touchpad every time they want to type a URL.

Windows Password Files Torn Apart

All, Windows, users would probably be familiar with the infamous ‘pwl’ files or the files where the Windows login passwords are stored. Well, this manual is aimed at, simplifying how the authentication works when you type in your User name And password, what exactly .pwl files contain, where exactly they come into the picture and a whole lot of related things.

The *.pwl files are basically files in which the Windows Login Passwords are stored in. These files can be found in the \Windows directory by the name of the User, whose password it contains. For Example, if your Windows login Username is ankit, then the corresponding password would be stored in c:\windows\ankit.pwl Get it? These .pwl files are readable in any text editor like Notepad, but they are definitely not understandable. A typical example, of the contents of a .pwl file is as follows:


p u.ÐX+|rÐq”±/2³ Êå¡hCJ‚D × `ÍY¥!íx}(qW¤ãƱ<!–?àÜ6šá˜ôæ4+\3/4õ+%E°ËÔýmÇÔ ÞI»‚ B àלøÐ…'@ This is definitely not something; a normal person can comprehend or make sense of. Now, besides the Windows registry, Microsoft’s policy of security by obscurity can also be seen in the case of what .pwl files. Although the original usage of .pwl files was a standard to be used, by all applications, Microsoft simply does not officially provide any type of information on the standards of .pwl files. To get a list of .pwl files in your system or in other words to find out which all passwords using the .pwl technology (What a good friend of mine likes to call them) are being stored on a particular system, then simply open c:\windows\system.ini in a plaintext editor like Notepad and look under the [Password Lists] section. A typical line from this section would be in the following format: USERNAME=Path_of_pwl_file For Example, [Password Lists] ankit=c:\windows\ankit.pwl This tells us that the .pwl containing the password for the Username ‘ankit’ is stored at: c:\windows\ankit.pwl Anyway, the algorithm which is used in the case of storing information in the .pwl files (rather in the .pwl security option), refers to such files as databases, with each record consisting of three fields-: Resource name Resource password Resource type (0..255) Before, I move onto giving details about the above three fields, let us discuss, how exactly the User Authentication process takes place in Windows (In the case of the login password.) NOTE: The below process is what happens in the case of the Windows login password. When you first set a new account on Windows, it derives an encryption key from the specified password and creates c:\windows\username.pwl file, where username is the, well, quite obvious. One, thing to note here is that the .pwl file does not, I repeat does not store the login password, nor does it store the Username.(Although its name is same as the Username for whose authentication it is used.) What it stores, will become clearer once you read the below paragraph. Now, the next time, you boot your system and type in your Username and password, then Windows, decrypts the .pwl corresponding to the Username provided, using the decrypting key obtained from the password provided. Once, the .pwl file has been decrypted using the decryption key obtained from the provided password, Windows, verifies the checksum. If the checksum is correct or matches, then the user is authenticated else, try again. In the process of checksum verification, the username provided plays an important role. Both the Username and Checksum are encrypted using a simple algorithm: RC4. ***************************** TRUTH: Although, almost always, the name of the .pwl file is same as the Username, sometimes the name does differ. For Example, if, I use 2 to 3 different applications using .pwl security and then use the same username i.e. ankit in all of them to store passwords, then the naming of the .pwl files would be as follows: The first .pwl would be named: ankit.pwl, the second would be named: ankit000.pwl , the third would be: ankit001.pwl and so on. And, I am not too sure, but from what I gather, Windows never ever overwrites a .pwl file. ****************************** Coming, back to the fields. Both the resource name and resource password fields can be binary or simply encrypted and they are interchangeable by the application involved. The Resource Type field can have different numerical values depending upon the software involved. For Example, DUN, Dial Up Server and Windows Login, uses 6 as the value for the Resource Type field. While, Internet Explorer uses 19 as the value of the same field. One thing to note about Windows Login password algorithms is that, the first time it was introduced, the algorithm was very very weak and allowed passwords to be easily decrypted. However, with each new release, the algorithms used have been improving. However, it still has not reached a reliable level. In the algorithms used by various Operating Systems to encrypt their login passwords, the algorithm used by Windows is the worst. Some common defects are-: 1. The cipher algorithms involved are relatively lame. i.e. RC4 and MD5. They can easily be broken. Refer to:\algorithms.htm for more info on various Encryption algorithms. 2. All passwords are converted to uppercase 3. Un-acceptably lame or weak method of storage. 4. Various Holes existing in the Password Caching Facility. The following Visual C++ program demonstrates further as to how this vulnerability can be exploited. /* (c) 1997, 98 Vitas Ramanchauskas Use Visual C++ to compile this into win32 console app. This code provided for educational purpose only. !! NO WARRANTY, NO SUPPORT !! */ #include

typedef struct tagPASSWORD_CACHE_ENTRY {
WORD cbEntry; // size of this entry, in bytes
WORD cbResource; // size of resource name, in bytes
WORD cbPassword; // size of password, in bytes
BYTE iEntry; // entry index
BYTE nType; // type of entry
BYTE abResource[1]; // start of resource name
// password immediately follows resource name

char *buf, *ob1;
int cnt = 0;

memmove(buf, x->abResource, x->cbResource);
buf[x->cbResource] = 0;
CharToOem(buf, ob1); // for non-English users
printf(“%-30s : “, ob1);

memmove(buf, x->abResource+x->cbResource, x->cbPassword);
buf[x->cbPassword] = 0;
CharToOem(buf, ob1);
printf(“%s\n”, ob1);

return TRUE;

void main()
buf = new char[1024];
ob1 = new char[1024];
puts(“There is no security in this crazy world!\n”
“Win95 PWL viewer v1.01 (c) 1997, 98 Vitas Ramanchauskas\n”
“!This program intended to be used for legal purpose only!\n”
“This program shows cached passwords using standard (but undocumented)\n”
“Windows API on local machine for current user (user must be logged in).\n”
“You may invoke pwlview in this way: pwlview >> textfile.txt\n”
“to save passwords in file (don’t forget to press enter twice)\n”
“Press Enter to begin…\n”);

HINSTANCE hi = LoadLibrary(“mpr.dll”);
puts(“Couldn’t load mpr.dll. This program is for Windows 95 only”);
WORD (__stdcall *enp)(LPSTR, WORD, BYTE, void*, DWORD) =
(WORD (__stdcall *)(LPSTR, WORD, BYTE, void*, DWORD))GetProcAddress(hi, “WNetEnumCachedPasswords”);
puts(“Couldn’t import function. This program is for Windows 95 only”);
(*enp)(0,0, 0xff, pce, 0);
puts(“No passwords found.\n”
“Probably password caching was not used or user is not logged in.”);
puts(“\nPress Enter to quit”);

Important Tweaks In Brief

1] Your Pc Must have 256MB RAM , 512 MB Cache , Intel Pentium 4 Processor, 40 GB HDD. These are the minimum requirements now-a-days.

2] If you see a ‘virtual memory low’ message then increase its virtual memory. To increase virtual memory,
Go to My Computer->Properties->Advanced->Performance Settings->Advanced->Virtual Memory->Change->Select the appropriate drive->Custom size->set appropriate level(our it is 600(min.) & 700(max.)->Ok.

3] Increase ‘Visual Performance’. Go to My Computer->Properties->Advanced->Performance Settings->Visual Settings->Custom->Select only the following options.
a)Slide taskbar buttons.
b)Smooth edges of screen fonts.
c)Smooth-scroll list boxes.
d)Use a background image for each folder type.
e)Use visual style on windows and buttons.

4] Don’t keep unwanted/extra fonts. To remove extra fonts, Go to Start->Settings->Control Panel->Fonts.

5] Your Desktop Wallpaper & Screensaver consume a large amount of disk space. Select the ‘None’ option for both wallpapers & Screensavers.

6] Avoid keeping DEMO Games.

7] Uninstall the unwanted Softwares.

8] Use Registry Cleaner to keep your registry clean(without errors).

9] Try to keep Music and pictures files in the folder specified by windows itself.

10]Use Hybernating Option for Quick windows start. To active Hybernating follow the following steps.
Desktop->Properties->Screensaver->Power->Hybernating->Enable Hybernating->Ok.

11] Keep your Dektop clean with unwanted icons.

12] Use Intel Application Accelerator to speed up your disk access,

13] Memory management (at least 512MB RAM Required). This allow XP to keep data in Memory instead of paging section of RAM.
Go to->Start->Run->regedit->HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE->SYSTEM->CurrentControlSet->Control->Session Manager->Memory Management->Double click it->DisablePageingExecutive->Double Clik it->Set value to 1.

14] Disable Yahoo Messenger, Google Talk, and other unwanted programs from startup. (You can use registry editior to do this.). Because they do not appear in normal Startup Option.

15] Disable indexing files service (only if you do not use search option regularly). To do this follow the following steps.
Go to My Computer->Select the drive for which you want to disable the indexing service->Properties->Unselect ‘Allow Indexing Service’->Ok.

16] For Windows XP, You must use NTFS partition. FAT partition is less supportive for Windows XP.

17] In BIOS, Select first booting device as your HDD.

18] Setting Priority High for a particular program.
Open Task Manager->Processes->Select the desired Program->Right Click->Set Priority->High->Ok.
This Priority set if for current session. Once you restart your system then its priority will again be Normal.

19] Keep deleting your Temporary Internet Files in regular intervals.
Go to Windows Drive (c: or d:)->Select the User->Local Settings->Temporary Internet Files

20] Empty your browser’s cache in regular intervals.

21] Avoid keeping Movies in your PC.

Create a Shortcut to Lock Your Computer

Leaving your computer in a hurry but you don’t want to log off? You can double-click a shortcut on your desktop to quickly lock the keyboard and display without using CTRL+ALT+DEL or a screen saver. To create a shortcut on your desktop to lock your computer: Right-click the desktop. Point to New, and then click Shortcut. The Create Shortcut Wizard opens. In the text box, type the following: rundll32.exe user32.dll,LockWorkStation Click Next. Enter a name for the shortcut. You can call it “Lock Workstation” or choose any name you like. Click Finish. You can also change the shortcut’s icon (my personal favorite is the padlock icon in shell32.dll). To change the icon: Right click the shortcut and then select Properties. Click the Shortcut tab, and then click the Change Icon button. In the Look for icons in this file text box, type: Shell32.dll. Click OK. Select one of the icons from the list and then click OK You could also give it a shortcut keystroke such CTRL+ALT+L. This would save you only one keystroke from the normal command, but it could be more convenient.